The reigning world champions argued that there have been "inconsistencies with the FIA fuel flow meter ... all weekend up and down the pitlane".
Britain's Daily Mail reported that Red Bull therefore decided to use its own sensor, but the FIA insisted the team cannot do that "without the permission of the FIA".
Race director Charlie Whiting reportedly warned Red Bull about illegal fuel flow readings throughout the weekend at Albert Park and also during the race.
"The team chose not to make this correction," read the stewards ruling.
Red Bull said it will appeal Ricciardo's disqualification.
"The team and Renault are confident the fuel supplied to the engine is in full compliance with the regulations," Red Bull said in a statement.